Eos and the broader struggle over valuing Welsh language products

The Eos ruling by the Copyright Tribunal is a vicious blow to musicians who choose to sing in Welsh, erectile but it is also a blow in the wider debate about the way we measure the value of Welsh cultural products – from daily news to television entertainment.

At the heart of the Eos vs BBC struggle lies the contrary viewpoints of the BBC, stuff who argue that music should be valued according to its usual measures (including RAJAR and several other statistics which combine audience research and broadcast time); and Eos, website like this who argue that it is not possible to measure the value of payments for Welsh language music on statistics alone (and dodgy statistics at that) and that their unique and intrinsic cultural value is a factor that must be considered.

Since the Earthquake, when S4C’s value was thrown into the lions den in front of emperor Hunt, S4C have also been in the process of putting the argument for measuring value. Many people supportive of the channel have noted that audience statistics aren’t the be all and end all of value measurement but that economic, social and cultural value all have to be considered in measuring the success of a minority language television channel. This was Ian Jones’s response to the drop in viewing figures reported in the S4C annual report in July 2013:

“It’s no longer appropriate in today’s multiplatform television environment to use one simple performance measure to assess success,”
“Success today is a combination of factors including audience reach, economic impact, audience appreciation, trust, a successful provision of content for learners, for children’s programmes, and contributing to a positive impact on the Welsh language and culture.”

In terms of the offline printed press, circulation remains an important measurement tool if not the most important; online the ‘daily unique users’ stats, or whichever Google Analytics metric gives the highest figure, dominates. There isn’t the same kind of discussion of engagement measurement, democratic or political impact, or broader cultural value.

However, there is one small difference: the Welsh language print press on the whole is funded and administered from within Wales, so it’s possible to say that cultural value is given more consideration than merely how many have read or purchased. The only part of the print sector that isn’t is BBC Cymru – which has been given a reach target of 50k “users” by 2015 which is very black and white compared to the way evaluation is going at S4C. Democratic value is at the top of the agenda for the Welsh Assembly, and it’s clear that reach is not the only metric used by them in looking at the possible future of subsidy for the English language press in Wales.

Also in July 2013, The Welsh Books Council published a report on English language magazines in Wales (link to PDF). Therein, on page 5, lies the following sentence which touches upon their core principles when assessing the “value” of these magazines:

Value-for-money judgements concerning any subsidised activity must balance the quality, reach and public benefit of that activity against its cost. There is no absolute formula for establishing whether that balance is struck in any given case: this calculation is best made on the basis of comparisons with like activity elsewhere, and the responses of intended beneficiaries.

Common sense, you would think, but no, the system of payments for music doesn’t operate under a subsidy, but within a framework which is commercial, industrial and British, even though the licensing fee is a kind of public subsidy.

The BBC doesn’t see protecting the Welsh language as its role, neither do they see their role as that of a body responsible for measuring cultural value. This is a perspective which claims some kind of cultural neutrality – our purpose is to provide a service to the audience and nothing else – but it’s an artifical neutrality. How is it that S4C and the Welsh Books Council (and the Arts Council of Wales if it comes to that) can talk about cultural obligations and serving the audience in the same breath, and clearly state that measuring the value of their output involves much more than just the size of the audience, and the BBC is unable to do the same?

Despite the best efforts of some to introduce nuance to these public debates, their efforts are drowned out by crude soundbites: news reports – both positive and negative – are based on statistics about levels of viewing/listening/reading collected by agencies outside of Wales in the case of radio, television and the print media, and internally but with no consistency of methodology in the case of online media. In the age of Twitter, these soundbites are what circulate and get swallowed without question.

The argument here is about how to measure value, and the Eos verdict clearly demonstrates that there are centralised institutions in the UK which are still not interested in considering anything outside of that which serves their own needs. And why would they? To do so would undermine a model which has existed for decades. It would be an attack on the centralised system and would weaken their grip on an element of the state apparatus.

There’s “no evidence to suggest that devolution of broadcasting policy or a different approach to funding the BBC would benefit licence fee payers” according to the UK Government’s response to the Silk Commission. Which license fee payers are these then? Those who listen to Radio Cymru? Those who believe in a Wales where the Welsh language receives reasonable conditions in which to exist and flourish? I doubt it. The leader of the Welsh Conservatives understands that there’s a real need to devolve broadcasting – he understands that there’s no way of forming policies on culture and the media which won’t lead to more clashes of this type.

Consider these sentences from page 11 of the tribunal’s report:

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In winning this argument, according to the tribunal, the BBC in London have issued a dictat: it’s not possible for you to make decisions on your own, we will always have the final say, it’s us who decides how to measure the value of your culture, we don’t consider cultural value when measuring the success of our output, nor the value of those individuals responsible for creating that success (Welsh language musicians, in this case) .

In short: you don’t control your own culture and media, we do.

I’m grateful to Eos and all the Welsh musicians for making this stand, and for putting the case for fairness in measuring the value of their contribution. The verdict is a blow, but it’s also an illustration of the rifts that are appearing within the UK and that a persistant tug on this loose thread might be all it takes to unravel the fragile net holding this failing system together.

[Diolch yn fawr iawn i Nic Dafis yn arbennig, ac unrhyw gyfieithwyr anhysbys eraill a helpodd i gyfieithu’r gofnod. Vive la Google Docs!
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Many thanks to Nic Dafis and any other anonymous translators that have contributed to translating this post. Yay, for online collaboration!]

Dyfarniad Eos a’r frwydr ehangach dros fesur gwerth cynnyrch Cymraeg

Mae dyfarniad y Tribiwnlys Hawlfraint yn ergyd andwyol i gerddorion sy’n dewis canu yn y Gymraeg, viagra approved ond mae hefyd yn ergyd yn y ddadl ehangach dros y ffordd rydyn ni’n mesur gwerth cynnyrch diwylliannol Cymraeg – o newyddion dyddiol i raglenni adloniant teledu.

Wrth graidd y ddadl Eos vs BBC mae cyferbyniad safbwynt y BBC eu bod yn mesur gwerth y gerddoriaeth yn ôl eu mesuryddion arferol (gan gynnwys RAJAR a nifer ystadegau eraill sydd yn yn cyfuno ymchwil cynulleidfa ac oriau darlledu), gyda safbwynt Eos, sef na ellir mesur gwerth taliadau am gerddoriaeth Gymraeg yn ôl ystadegau yn unig (ac ystadegau amheus o ran hynny) a bod eu gwerth diwylliannol unigryw yn ffactor sydd yn rhaid ei ystyried.

Ers y Daeargryn,  pan gafodd gwerth S4C ei luchio i ffau’r llewod o flaen yr ymerawdwr Hunt, mae S4C hefyd yn y broses o geisio rhoi’r ddadl am fesur gwerth. Mae llawer o leisiau cefnogol i’r sianel yn nodi nad ystadegau yw diwedd y gân ond bod budd economaidd, cymdeithasol a diwylliannol yn gorfod cael eu hystyried wrth fesur llwyddiant a gwerth sianel deledu mewn iaith leiafrifol. Dyma oedd ymateb Ian Jones i gwymp mewn ffigyrau gwylio yn adroddiad blynyddol S4C Gorffennaf 2013:

“Yn y byd teledu aml-lwyfan, dyw defnyddio un mesur perfformiad syml er mwyn asesu llwyddiant ddim yn ddigonol bellach.

“Mae llwyddiant heddiw yn cael ei ddehongli trwy gyfuniad o ffactorau, gan gynnwys cyrhaeddiad y gwasanaeth, effaith economaidd, gwerthfawrogiad y gynulleidfa, ymddiriedaeth, darpariaeth lwyddiannus i ddysgwyr, rhaglenni plant, a chyfrannu at effaith bositif ar ddiwylliant a’r iaith Gymraeg.”

O ran y wasg brint oddiarlein, mae’r cylchrediad yn parhau’n fesurydd pwysig os nad y pwysicaf; arlein mae’r ystadegau ‘defnyddwyr unigryw dyddiol’ (neu ba bynnag ystadegyn Google Analytics sy’n rhoi’r ffigwr uchaf…) yn teyrnasu. Nid oes yr un math o sôn am fesur ymwneud, am fesur impact gwleidyddol a democrataidd, neu werthfawrogiad a gwerth ehangach diwylliannol.

Fodd bynnag, mae un gwahaniaeth bach: mae’r wasg brint Gymraeg ar y cyfan yn cael ei ariannu oddi fewn i Gymru, felly mae’n bosib dweud bod pwrpas diwylliannol yn cael ystyriaeth well na dim ond sawl sy’n prynu. Yr unig ran o’r sector brint sydd ddim yw gwefan BBC Cymru – sydd wedi cael targed cyrhaeddiad o 50k o “ddefnyddwyr erbyn 2015 sydd yn ddu a gwyn iawn o’i gymharu â’r ffordd mae’r gwynt gwerthuso’n chwythu gyda S4C. Mae gwerth democrataidd y newyddion ar dop agenda y Cynulliad, ac mae’n gwbl glir taw nid dim ond cyrhaeddiad yw’r mesurydd a ddefnyddir ganddynt wrth edrych at ddyfodol posibl o sybsidi print yn Saesneg.

Cafwyd adroddiad, hefyd yng Nghorffennaf 2013, gan Gyngor Llyfrau Cymru o gylchgronau Cymreig Saesneg eu hiaith (dolen i PDF). Mae yno frawddeg ar dudalen 5 sydd yn cyffwrdd ar eu hegwyddorion sylfaenol hwy wrth edrych ar “werth” y cylchgronnau hyn:  

Value-for-money judgements concerning any subsidised activity must balance the quality, reach and public benefit of that activity against its cost. There is no absolute formula for establishing whether that balance is struck in any given case: this calculation is best made on the basis of comparisons with like activity elsewhere, and the responses of intended beneficiaries.

Synnwyr cyffredin dybiwch chi, ond na, mae’r system daliadau cerddoriaeth yn gweithredu o fewn fframwaith sydd ddim yn sybsidi, ond yn un masnachol, diwydiannol, Prydeinig er bod y ffi drwydded yn ffurf ar sybsidi cyhoeddus.

Nid yw’r BBC yn gweld eu rôl fel un o warchod y Gymraeg, ac nid ydynt yn gweld eu rôl fel corff sy’n gyfrifol am fesur gwerth diwylliannol chwaith. Mae’r safbwynt hwn yn honni rhyw fath o niwtraledd – dim ond gwasanaethu cynulleidfaoedd yw ein pwrpas  – ond mae’n niwtraledd ffug.  Sut bod S4C a’r Cyngor Llyfrau (a’r Cyngor Celfyddydau os daw at hynny) yn gallu sôn am oblygiadau diwylliannol a gwasanaethu cynulleidfa yn yr un gwynt, gan nodi’n glir bod llawer mwy i fesur gwerth na chyrhaeddiad y cynnyrch yn unig, tra bod y BBC yn methu?

Er ymgeision teilwng i roi nuance yn y dadleuon cyhoeddus hyn, ceir clegar amrwd dros bopeth: daw’r penawdau newyddion – da a drwg – o ystadegau gwylio/gwrando/darllen a gesglir drwy asiantaethau o’r tu allan i Gymru yn achos radio, teledu a’r wasg brint, ac yn fewnol ac heb unrhyw gysondeb o ran dulliau yn achos arlein. Yn oes y trydariad, dyma’r hyn sy’n cylchredeg ac a gaiff ei lyncu’n aml yn ddi-gwestiwn.

Rydyn ni mewn brwydr am fesur gwerth, ac mae dyfarniad Eos yn nodi’n glir nad oes gan rai o sefydliadau canolog y DU ddiddordeb o gwbl mewn edrych y tu hwnt i’r hyn sydd yn gwasanaethu eu anghenion hwy ar hyn o bryd. A pham fydden nhw? Achos byddai’n tanseilio model sydd wedi bodoli ers degawdau. Byddai’n ymosodiad ar y system ganoledig a’n gwanhau’r gafael ar elfen o aparatws wladwriaethol.

Nid oes “unrhyw dystiolaeth yn awgrymu y byddai datganoli polisi darlledu neu ddull gwahanol o ariannu’r BBC o fudd i dalwyr y ffi drwydded” yn ôl ymateb Llywodraeth y DU i Gomisiwn Silk. Pa dalwyr y ffi drwydded yw’r rheiny te? Y rhai sy’n gwrando ar Radio Cymru? Y rhai sydd yn credu mewn Cymru lle mae’r Gymraeg yn cael amodau teg i fodoli ac i flodeuo? Dwi’n amau. Mae arweinydd y Torïaid yng Nghymru yn deall bod angen datganoli darlledu – mae’n deall nad oes modd gosod polisïau am ddiwylliant a chyfryngau o’r tu allan i Gymru heb arwain at wrthdaro eto.

Ystyriwch y brawddegau hyn o dudalen 11 adroddiad y tribiwnlys:

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O enill y ddadl, yn ôl barn y tribiwnlys, mae’r BBC yn ganolog wedi gosod her: nid oes modd i chi wneud penderfyniadau drosoch eich hunain, mae’r grym terfynol gennym ni, ni sydd yn penderfynu ar sut i fesur gwerth eich diwylliant, nid ydym yn ystyried gwerth diwylliannol ein cynnyrch wrth fesur llwyddiant, ac yn ei dro yr elfennau hynny sydd yn rhan greiddiol o’r llwyddiant hwnnw (sef cerddorion Cymraeg yn yr achos hwn).

Yn syml: nid chi sydd â rheolaeth dros eich diwylliant a’ch cyfryngau, ond ni.

Dwi’n ddiolchgar i Eos a’r holl gerddorion Cymraeg am sefyll yn wyneb hyn, a rhoi’r achos dros fesur gwerth eu cyfraniad mewn dull gyfiawn. Mae’r dyfarniad yn ergyd, ond mae’n fodd i ddangos y rhwygiadau sydd yn ymddangos  yn y DU ac yn fodd i ninnau symud tuag at dynnu ar yr edafedd a rhwygo mwy ar y brethyn brau hwnnw sy’n dal y systemau methedig hyn at ei gilydd.

Anghyfartaledd newyddion Cymraeg a Saesneg BBC Cymru

Sbotiwch y gwahaniaeth:

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Na, hepatitis nid bod stori Andrew RT Davies ddim ar gael ar dudalennau BBC Wales News (sydd yn drawiadol) ond bod dim botymau rhannu/argraffu/trydar ar y tudalennau Cymraeg.

Dylen ni fod yn gwneud hi’n *haws* rhannu a dosbarthu deunydd Cymraeg ar y we, nid anoddach. Efallai ei fod yn swnio’n fychan, ond mae’n symptom o’r ffordd mae’r elfennau Cymraeg yn cael eu trin yn eilradd yng ngweithdrefnau rollout technoleg yn y BBC. Rydan ni gyd wedi arfer gweld dyluniad a diwyg tudalennau newyddion BBC yn Gymraeg yn cymryd misoedd os nad mwy i gael eu diweddaru i’r un safon a’r rhai Saesneg ar BBC Cymru. Roedd y prif dudalennau Newyddion Cymraeg tan yn ddiweddar yn dal yn defnyddio hen template tra bod BBC Wales yn cael yr un newydd. Roedd tudalennau Chwaraeon Cymraeg BBC (gorffwysed mewn hedd) wastad gam y tu ôl o’i gymharu a’r fersiwn Saesneg. Faint o amser gymrodd hi i flog Vaughan Roderick gael upgrade?

Nid hollti blew yw hyn, mae safon dylunio a nodweddion UX ychwanegol yn cael effaith uniongyrchol ar ddewisiadau darllenwyr newyddion. Mae’n rhaid i ddarllenwyr Cymraeg wneud rhyw gyfaddawd wrth ddewis darllen yr un newyddion yn Gymraeg neu Saesneg. Mae’r math hyn o gyfaddawd yn bownd o erydu niferoedd darllenwyr. Yn yr achos uchod mae’r cynnwys yn unigryw yn y Gymraeg, sy’n glodwiw, ond nid dyma’r norm. Os ydi Rhodri TD o ddifri am gynyddu niferoedd sy’n ymweld â thudalennau Cymraeg y BBC yna rhaid taclo problemau strwythurol fel hyn head on. Ond does dim awgrym y bydd hyn yn digwydd. Tystiolaeth i gefnogi neges Andrew RT Davies ie ddim?

Arriva Cymru a phroblem fawr y Gymraeg ar y we

Arriva Cymru? Be sgen hynny i neud efo’r Gymraeg ar y we?

Wel…hyn:

Dwi’n siwr bod nhw’n ymwybodol o hyn yn Newyddion BBC a Golwg360 ond mae chwilio Google yn broblem mawr iddyn nhw o ran denu darllenwyr, drug ac yn broblem mawr i ddarllenwyr sydd eisiau ffeindio straeon Cymraeg.

Y diwrnod o’r blaen o’n i eisiau darllen am y llanast Bysus Arriva Cymru, pilule felly chwiliais “Arriva Cymru”. Canlyniad?

Chwilio Arriva Cymru

Dim newyddion. Dim ond gwefannau swyddogol (gyda dim hyd yn oed newyddion am y cyhoeddiad ar wefan Arriva, thumb natch).

Trio eto felly a chwilio, fel dwi’n arfer gwneud erbyn hyn yn Saesneg am “Arriva Wales”. Canlyniad?

Arriva Wales

Chydig yn well, ar ôl y 3 canlyniad uchaf mae canlyniadau diweddar iawn am newyddion gan wefannau BBC News, WalesOnline a rhywbeth arall o’r enw 4ni.

Clic felly ar stori BBC News gan feddwl ffeindio’r erthygl Gymraeg. Oeddwn i’n gallu ffeindio’r ddolen i fynd at dudalennau BBC Cymru? Ddim am hydoedd. Sganiodd fy llygaid bach ar draws ac i lawr y dudalen, ac yn ôl i fyny eto. Roeddwn i’n chwilio am “Cymraeg” yn y gornel top dde, gan mod i’n reddfol erbyn hyn yn meddwl taw fan honno mae’r switsh iaith.

BBC Wales Arriva

Ond does dim switsh iaith. A Newyddion ydi’r enw ar y ddolen. Yn y diwedd mi ffeindiais y ddolen a chlicio drwodd i fama:

Hafan NewyddionA wedyn clicio i fama:

Erthygl Newyddion Arriva

A chael at lle o’n i isio mynd yn y lle cynta, 4 clic yn ôl. Yn y cyfamser mae pob person call sydd wedi gwneud yr un peth wedi setlo ar gael yr wybodaeth o’r tudalennau Saesneg.

A doedd Golwg360 ddim hyd yn oed ar y radar Google yn ystod hyn i gyd.

Afraid deud bod hyn yn broblem enfawr i newyddion Cymraeg ac yn dangos pa mor bwysig ydi integreiddio newyddion Cymraeg mewn i chwiliadau Google. Dwi’n deall yn iawn bod BBC Newyddion a Golwg360 bownd o fod yn torri’u boliau eisiau cael Google [Gol: Google News UK, ‘lly] i’w derbyn ond dyma’r broblem eto fyth – mae’r penderfyniadau yn gwbl allan o’n dwylo ac mae pob un achos fel hyn ar draws y we yn gwneud yr iaith yn fwy a mwy anweledig.

‘Shocked acquiesence’ mae’r erthygl yma’n galw’r ffenomenon yma o ddechrau’r unfed ganrif ar hugain sydd yn disgrifio’r teimlad o gael eich syfrdanu gan rywbeth sydd mor fawr ac allan o’ch rheolaeth fel PRISM neu newid hinsawdd na allwch chi ddelio gyda fo mewn unrhyw ffordd ond ei anwybyddu. Mae’n siwr fod na lot o eiriau amdano, rhyw ochenaid fawr a “o wel”. Mae na deimlad fel’na braidd am ddyfodol y Gymraeg arlein yn wyneb Google ac ati. Mae Luistxo Fernandez yn ei alw’n ‘Twitter tsunami’ mewn cyd-destun arall. Moch ar y winllan efallai fasai’r term Saundersaidd Cymraeg addas mae’n debyg.

Ond mae’r winllan wedi cael ei thirfeddiannu ers tro a rhaid gofyn i Google am ganiatad i brynu ein grawnwin ein hunain yn ôl erbyn hyn, a hynny ar premium. Does dim rheolaeth ganddon ni dros sut mae cael mynediad a sylw at y Gymraeg ar y we. Os taw cael sylw i gynnwys yw problem fawr ein oes, yna mae cael sylw at gynnwys Cymraeg yn broblem hyd yn oed yn fwy. Gallai llywodraeth Thatcher ildio S4C i ni ar un o bedair sianel deledu. Roedd honno’n sicrhau bod sylw priodol i gynnwys Cymraeg. Ond ni all yr un llywodraeth roi ‘S4C’ i ni ar gyfer y we. Neu allan nhw?

Ai cael teli Cymraeg ar sgrin gyntaf YouView ac iplayer sy’n gyfatebol rwan? Falle. Ond mae hynny ond yn ateb un rhan o’r broblem cynnwys. Efallai taw cael Google, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube i roi statws i gynnwys Cymraeg yn eu gwasanaethau fyddai ‘ildio S4C’ ein hoes. Hynny yw, nid dim ond caniatau i ni gyfeithu ein rhyngwynebau ar eu rhan (o! Diolch yn fawr Twitter, dwi’n gwybod eich bod chi’n sgint!!), ond sicrhau bod ein cynnwys yn cael tegwch yn y gêm hyn o rymoedd gwladwriaethol a chwmniau masnachol traws-wladwriaethol sy’n cael ei alw’n ‘economi sylw’. O barhau’r trosiad S4C, a fyddai ymgyrchwyr S4C wedi bodloni ar gael y cyflwynwyr continuity ar BBC Cymru, ITVWales a Channel 4 Wales yn darllen mewn dwy iaith rhwng rhaglenni Saesneg? No we. Y cynnwys oedd yn bwysig. Lleoliad y cynnwys hwnnw yn yr amserlen oedd yn bwysig. Y cynnwys sydd yn bwysig rwan hefyd. Ac mae lleoliad y cynnwys hwnnw’n bwysicach nag erioed.

Ond dyma rai cwestiynau sydd gen i sydd, dwi’n meddwl angen eu hateb yn fwy ar frys, efallai, na sut mae ariannu parhad teledu ar S4C:

  • Sut mae cael cynnwys Cymraeg i ymddangos ochr yn ochr â Saesneg fel yr oedd gyda S4C yn y byd 4 sianel?
  • Sut mae gwneud y we Saesneg yn fwy porous/permeable o ran y Gymraeg yn lle’r ffordd arall rownd?
  • Faint o werth roddech chi ar gyflawni hynny? £1miliwn? £10miliwn? £70miliwn?
  • Pwy ddyla dalu? Google et al eu hunain, neu dreth arbennig, y Llywodraeth (pa un?) neu arian S4C?
  • Faint o werth mae strategaeth iaith y Llywodraeth yn rhoi i ‘sylw’ ar y we?
  • Faint o werth ydyn ni gyd fel pobol brwdfrydig tech Cymraeg yn rhoi ar hynny?

Dwi ddim yn arbenigwr ar search o bell ffordd, ond ma’n rhaid bod na atebion – neu ydan ni jest am ista mewn shocked acquiescence? Ar hyn o bryd – dyna da ni’n ei wneud. Yn araf i dderbyn a deall goblygiadau’r dechnoleg i’n iaith a’n ddiymadferth wrth geisio meddwl am beth i wneud pan ydyn ni’n dechrau sylweddoli’r goblygiadau hynny.

So plis, tynnwch fi o fy shocked acquiescence, ydi hi mor ddu â hynny?

Diwrnod Ada Lovelace: dathlu Christina Xu a menywod Hacio’r Iaith

Mae Christina Xu yn un o arwresau’r Internets. Mae hi’n llythrennol awesome, treatment fel y bydda i’n esbonio isod, a hi falle sydd wedi fy ysbrydoli i fwy diweddar a dyna pam dwi eisiau rhoi props iddi hi ar ddiwrnod Ada Lovelace heddiw.

Y rheswm? Wel, nes i fynd i sesiwn yn SXSW llynedd ar harnesu grym y rhyngrwyd er mwyn gwneud y byd ma’n well. Roedd Christina’n siarad am brosiect Awesome Foundation, sydd yn lledaenu’r syniad o sefydlu grwpiau bach i ddod at ei gilydd i greu cynllun micro-grantiau ar gyfer pob math o bethau o waith elusennol, i sdwff eraill mewn technoleg a gwyddoniaeth na fysa’n hawdd ei ariannu drwy ffynhonellau eraill.

Roedd y syniad mor syml a hithau mor frwdfrydig y ces i’n ysbrydoli’n syth i drio gwneud rhywbeth fel’na yng Nghymru, sydd yn sgrechian am ffyrdd o ariannu prosiectau sydd ddim yn dod o’r pwrs cyhoeddus. Rwan, dydw i ddim wedi gwireddu’r syniad yna eto (os oes rhywun isio helpu fi yna plis ewch draw i’r drafodaeth yma!) ond dwi dal yn argyhoeddiedig y gall o fod o werth mawr i gymdeithas yma.

Yn ystod y cyflwyniad clywais i bod hi hefyd yn un o sylfaenwyr ROFLcon sef cynhadledd am ddiwylliant rhyngrwyd, lle mae’r cyfaill Carl Morris wedi bod yn siarad, ag oedd Christina yn ei gofio’n iawn wrth i ni gael sgwrs ar ol ei phanel (“Carl? Oh yeah, he’s obsessed with Welsh stuff right?”).

Mae hi’n gweithio yn adran Cyfryngau Sifig MIT (lle faswn i wrth fy modd yn cael job!) ac wedi astudio hanes gwyddoniaeth yn ôl ei biog.

Dyma gofnod blog gwych ganddi hi sydd yn werth darlleniad sydd yn trafod amrywiaeth ar y rhyngrwyd a’r syniad o ddiffyg amrywiaeth mewn agweddau o ddiwylliant hiwmor rhyngrwyd a diwylliant memes yn benodol.

Felly ie, diolch am yr ysbrydoloiaeth Christina, well i fi drio ‘neud nid deud’ rwan yn dydi.

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Merched Hacio’r Iaith

Fel bonus enwebiad dwi hefyd isio diolch i’r holl fenywod sydd yn rhan o Hacio’r Iaith yn mynychu, cyfrannu a darllen/gwylio/gwrando. Dwi’n meddwl faswn i’n gneud anhegwch drwy roi cofnod unigol iddyn nhw, ond ma na ferchaid talentog a gwych ym maes ymchwil, technoleg, côdio, dylunio a chyfryngau sydd wedi bod yn rhan fawr o’r gymuned ers y dechrau un. Gobeithio gwelwn ni fwy fyth o ferchaid yn Hacio’r Iaith 2013, a gobeithio bod Hacio’r Iaith yn gallu cario mlaen i wella faint o ferchaid sy’n cymryd rhan yn y dyfodol.

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Diolch i Suw am greu Diwrnod Ada Lovelace. Ti’n ossym fyd.

Cyngor doeth Douglas Adams ar sut i stopio poeni am y rhyngrwyd

Diolch i Iwan Standley am fy mhwyntio fi at erthygl o 1999 gan y lej, cost Douglas Adams, sydd yn gosod yn syml iawn ac yn ei arddull unigryw pam bod dim angen i bobol fod yn bryderus wrth drafod y rhyngrwyd gan roi’r argraff ei fod yn rywbeth llawer mwy dirgel nag ydi o.

Mae’r paragraff yma am ‘ryngweithio’ yn arbennig o dda:

[…] ‘interactivity’ is one of those neologisms that Mr [John] Humphrys likes to dangle between a pair of verbal tweezers, but the reason we suddenly need such a word is that during this century we have for the first time been dominated by non-interactive forms of entertainment: cinema, radio, recorded music and television. Before they came along all entertainment was interactive: theatre, music, sport – the performers and audience were there together, and even a respectfully silent audience exerted a powerful shaping presence on the unfolding of whatever drama they were there for. We didn’t need a special word for interactivity in the same way that we don’t (yet) need a special word for people with only one head.

Yn anffodus ma’r erthygl yr un mor addas rwan ac ym 1999, gyda rhai newyddiadurwyr a darlledwyr eraill (yn fwriadol neu yn ddiarwybod iddyn nhw) yn parhau i drin y rhyngrwyd neu’r we fel creadur diddorol egsotig, yn hytrach na haen arall o fywyd sydd yn cwmpasu cyfathrebu, gwaith, economi, bywyd personol – y cwbl lot.

Why haven’t Welsh speakers taken to Foursquare?

I had a bit of a ding-dong with @berrydm earlier on Twitter about Foursquare and Welsh language usage on the platform. See below for a rundown of the tweets.


David Berry couldn’t see why Welsh speakers don’t just go out there and use platforms like 4sq in Welsh and make the space their own. I agree wholeheartedly with the need for Welsh to” align itself with these digital technologies” – Welsh should be used in as many domains as possible, approved including social media – but I disagree with the need, pills or perhaps the wisdom, of forcing to do so with 4sq in particular.
Here’s why:

The issue of early adopters (or the Welsh Digital Illuminati!)

  • David Berry suggests that foursquare can be made a space where the Welsh language is used if the ‘Welsh Digital Illuminati’ rally round and start leaving Welsh tips. I agree in principle that this is how you make Welsh language use on a platform normalised. A stubborn few hardcore users making a language visible on a platform, and getting the ball rolling, reducing the sense of talking in a vacuum. With Twitter and Facebook this development happened organically. People loved to use those platforms and saw that their friends were using them and so on. What I saw with Foursquare initially was that those usual Welsh speaking early adopters were there, but were either using English or not leaving tips at all, and just checking in (using English by default).
  • Berry suggests that Welsh speakers should rush to try to colonise a platform before English, but this is just impossible. The amount of people that speak English compared to Welsh (as well as those bilinguals who defer to English as their default online) will always mean that Welsh language use of a platform will come much later and much slower.
  • There are only so many Welsh speaking people adopting new digital technologies early and who have the desire and will to use Welsh on those platforms. The number of new digital platforms is increasing all the time. It  becomes a resource management and prioritisation issue. If the platform does not seem to be getting traction, then concentrate energies on something else, where time and effort can yield greater value for both the person creating content on that platform and end-user. People haven’t put all their eggs (or any eggs!) in the 4sq basket.

English and the invisible mass audience

  • When confronted with the opportunity to leave a tip on Foursquare, the user would usually have some idea in their mind of an audience. This could be their followers, as well as other unknown 4sq users who may check-in in the future. Most Welsh speakers, I would hazard, would leave a tip in English in order for their message to be understood by the widest possible audience.
  • But why leave a tip in English on 4sq when the same person would happily tweet in Welsh/bilingually when using another platform? I think it has to do with message frequency, permanence and a known audience. A tweet is one message amidst a busy flow giving the tweet less weight perhaps than a tip on Foursquare. The linguistic choice is therefore not dwelled upon too much. A Welsh speaking Twitter user also has a much wider range of followers that it knows do speak Welsh  (as well as possibly knowing that tweets are aggregated on platforms like Umap), meaning that they can imagine their audience in a much more concrete way than 4sq.

Reviews vs Game Layer

  • I started dabbling with Foursquare when it first launched. At the time, the tips elements of 4sq were not really how it was being pushed. It was the game layer that was the talking point which is non-linguistic in essence (although having automatic tweets of location etc in English only is a turn off).  Even though Crowley has tried to shake this off, that is still how I perceive it.

Has anybody really taken to Foursquare in Wales in a widespread way?

  • I gave up on Foursquare for several reasons: I found the game layer to be a little pointless; I found the social/serendipity element to be non-existent in my area (Ceredigion); I didn’t want to share my location in public; I found the take up of it didn’t reach a point where I thought ” I want to be part of this”; I found that tips on sites such as Qype and Yelp already provided me with deeper and better reviews for places I wished to go; and lastly: I didn’t want one other reason to get my phone out wherever I went!
  • I haven’t seen a large amount of people whom I know beyond those who adpoted 4sq early that have started using 4sq. With 10m users worldwide (but no stats on actual usage by these accounts), and although much lauded as a competitor to Twitter, it is still hasn’t really managed to break out to mainstream use.  I believe that most people are just too wary of publicly visible geolocation, or can’t see the point. The online review market is already fragmented, and in my opinion we don’t have enough Welsh speaking online reviewers who wish to use these platforms.
  • One prime example of where 4sq should work in Welsh but didn’t is the Eisteddfod. But alas 5 checkins an no reviews.

Usefulness and population density

  • How useful is 4sq in areas where there aren’t many regular users? I have looked at the tips in Aberystwyth today and still find them a bit on the weak side . In my opinion Qype and others have cornered the market on comments and reviews for places and Aberystwyth has a much wider variety and depth of tips. So the local and social serendipity aspects are weakened in areas where there is not a particularly high population density, as are many Welsh speaking areas.
  • Instead of using 4sq Welsh language Twitter users have started their own simple Twitter based platform that shares reviews through the hashtag #adolygiad: Adolygiad.com. This to me would suggest that there are people who wish to write reviews online, but don’t want to use platforms such as 4sq and Yelp which make it difficult, if not impossible, to find all Welsh language reviews in one place, or have a Welsh interface (Qype at one point did allow you to tag Welsh language reviews).
  • I don’t think it’s a coincidence either that 3G is so non-existent in Wales outside areas of high population density. Granted, 4sq is not heavy on data, but it may be the case that smartphone uptake is lower in these areas due to mobile data issues.
  • On usefulness, I agree that if there was a lot of Welsh language information on 4sq that it could be used for other platforms to build upon, but the kind of density of activity for you to be able to build something viable upon it would be very difficult. I think that only Twitter and Wicipedia would have enough content to make any apps that use their APIs viable. 4sq would take a long time to do that, and would ultimately still be patchy in its coverage.

Interface and Descriptions

  • Most places are named and described in English, which is understandable as that is the language of the interface. However, when you know that the place is commonly referred to in Welsh, or there is a Welsh name, it grates. It grates doubly if you can’t edit it. You have to be ‘first in’ or a superuser to  amend the name of a place. Not  a dealbreaker but certainly not much of an incentive to continue with it. The platform disincentivises use in any language other than English. Some platforms (such as Quora) remove Welsh language content as inappropriate language. As you can guess, I’ll never use Quora again, though’m not sure what 4sq’s policy is on this to be honest.
Would a distinctly Welsh language version of 4sq make the right environment for review exchange? Would there be enough uptake? Many have said that they would like to see a Welsh language review site, or something along those lines, but nobody has built it yet. I’m sure it would be great, but whilst other platforms exist it makes it a very tricky commercial proposition.
I haven’t seen any Welsh language tips on 4sq that I can remember, but I might try to leave a few to see what kind of reaction they get.
So, there are some thoughts. It would be good to hear yours. Thanks to @berrydm for prodding me to write.

“Trydar y Cymry! The Welsh Language Thrives Online”: cyfweliad ar Global Voices

Llun gan foomandoonian ar Flickr

Plyg bach: dwi wedi gwneud cyfweliad am y we Gymraeg, medstore trydar, cure blogio ac ati ar wefan Global Voices. Ewch draw i’w ddarllen a gadwch sylw plis!

Diolch o galon i Ayesha Saldanha, information pills sylwebydd GV a brodor o Gaerdydd yn wreiddiol. Roedd yn bleser ei chyfarfod yn ddiweddar.

Fel mae’n nodi ar waelod yr erthygl, dwi am drio cydlynu chydig o leisiau Cymraeg/Cymru i fynd draw ar Global Voices. Mae’n hen bryd i’n lleisiau ni gael platfform rhyngwladol. Mae’n stori ni cyn bwysiced â stori neb arall.

Mae Global Voices yn wefan a sefydlwyd yn 2005 gan Rebecca McKinnon a’r hynod wych Ethan Zuckerman (sydd efo lot o bethau diddorol i;w ddweud am iaith a’r rhyngrwyd) er mwyn pontio rhwng diwylliannau trwy gyfieithu straeon, a chyfieithu diwylliannau, fel ein bod yn deall ein byd yn well. Cymuned o flogwyr ydi o yn y bôn heb olygyddol unedig, sy’n ceisio rhoi platfform eghangach i gyfryngau amatur.

Os oes unrhyw un eisiau helpu fi i sylwebu / cyfieithu cofnodion sy’n haeddu sylw ehangach / neu wneud crynodebau misol ar yr yr hyn sy’n digwydd ar y rhyngrwyd Gymraeg a Chymreig yna plis cysylltwch. Mi faswn i’n werthfawrogol iawn o unrhyw help.

 

 

Theatr Felinfach Conference ‘Imaginging a New S4C’ (translated post)

A few people who don’t understand Welsh mentioned that they would like to read the take I had on a new S4C, more about so here’s a rough translation. A bit later than the original post sorry, ambulance but even with translation help, hemorrhoids these things take time to do.

[Grammatical Health Warning: this blog post was translated from this original Welsh language post using Google Translate as a tool to speed up the process. Subsequently, some of the phrasing and expressions may be a bit wonky. I hope that the wonkiness doesn’t affect the communication of the ideas too much.]

Saturday before last I went to Theatr Felinfach after being invited to give some ideas about the future of S4C in the digital context. I did not want to be so bold as to offer a full manifesto but rather to raise questions that could feed into further discussion. The article written by Euros on Click on Wales notes that I focus on the idea that more young people use social networks than television, but I felt that my message was a little different. I thought it was best to publish what I said anyway, in case there was some wider value to it. I’d be delighted to hear any comments.

Set a few challenges, raise some questions

I’m not trying to offer solutions to the business of producing television programs. There are plenty of other people who have long experience of the industry that can do that so much better. But I want to set some challenges or raise some questions of the Welsh broadcast system from the perspective of the enormous changes to every aspect of our lives brought about by the advent of the internet , and especially the way it has disrupted media business models as they had been developed up until the turn of the last century.

Online media is an integral part of the media landscape today. This is not the for the Welsh and particularly Welsh language media. Yet. How can we change that?

  • Welsh developments in the field has been hampered until now
  • there is institutional inertia across all Welsh language media providers (and arguably English language media providers in Wales)
  • not enough is being done to streamline arrangements so that it can adapt to the needs of digital media and the audience that is ready for it

Do we need more TV companies or a stronger digital sector?

  • the digital media sector is very weak, and exists mainly as poorly funded wings of companies whose main focus is other media/creative industries
  • S4C has a role in growing the digital media sector
  • if we want a dynamic media we have to develop companies that can adapt to produce for online

Do we need a comprehensive S4C.com or S4C as a digital brand across the internet and an investor in others?

  • trying to create one Welsh-language portal is a folly. Trying to compete as a homepage with the force of the BBC is impossible.
  • Better to try to spread the S4C brand across the web and across where audiences gather. Working diagonally rather than vertically.
  • Can begin to do this by creating a steady stream of investment for content and services online

Can S4C take the role of enabling and investment rather than commissioning?

  • are commissioners the right people to make decisions about the value of certain types of media in the age of the internet?
  • Perhaps S4C can begin using new arm’s length models to invest in projects slowly
  • There is no need to fund long online series to fill a schedule. Series can be developed incrementally and at their own pace.
  • It’s one thing to say they will promote the dreaded UGC, or unpaid content, on their website, but there’s no mention of trying to invest in anyone or any structures to help create that UGC

How can an organization like S4C change from one of grand actions to being an organization of small actions as well?

  • Maybe only 200 pounds is needed to start a small project online. Is it possible to develop a model to germinate media. Investing small, and invest more when they see success?
  • Models like this are totally alien to S4C but many of the successes of the web have grown from small beginnings.
  • If a success is on the cards, then broadcast platforms can boost it through harnessing broadcasts ability to speed up attention

Are there are ways of freeing up online content?

  • There is an urgent need to begin negotiations to ensure that Welsh material can have the freedom and conditions favorable to be distributed on-line
  • There is a need to re-examine the terms of trade for online content in Welsh
  • TAC / Equity / MU etc agreements were designed for the end of the analogue age. They are long overdue a re-assessment.
  • Thinking about how it is possible free up certain types of products online so that it can be re-used. Creative Commons licenses is one possibility. A new balance between fair royalties and the freedom to create, remix and share is essential.

How Can S4C provide a space to experiment, fail, explore new methods of production?

  • no one has a map for making the most of opportunities and challenges of media as it stands. We must therefore create a space in which to feel our way and see what works in Welsh

If we want to create new forms of civic value, we need to improve the ability of small groups to try radical things…our best chance for finding good ideas is to have as many groups as possible try as many things as possible.

Clay Shirky

How can S4C think beyond mainstream television whilst continuing to produce mainstream television?

  • not the displacemen of one technology / medium with another, but adding media upon media that will work together in new and complex ways
  • linear TV is still vitally important, but we must make enough space for the rest to breathe and develop

Is there a prime means of creating a Welsh media on the internet?

  • we must try to find what works for us as Welsh speakers.
  • The possibilities are endless, but almost nothing had been examined. Too often we simulate the Anglo-American models.

How can digital S4C help build an audience?

  • in the same way that S4C had to build a Welsh language audience for its new channel in 1982, we must build an audience for online material in Welsh

Criticizing present realities is important but insufficient. It can be hard to picture what the future would look like, and so to be making things, as examples of future creative diversity, in the here and now, offers a powerful and tangible form of inspiration to others – and challenges the apparent inevitability of the present.

David Gauntlett

  • the number of examples of online services in Welsh is limited. Without good examples, how to create the necessary continuity, the positive feedback loop?
  • S4C has a big role to play in promoting others who do work that matches their brief of providing Welsh public service media
  • I’m not talking of media literacy lessons here but trying to develop people with enthusiasm and energy to try something and drive them forward through encouragement and perhaps developmental innovations such as intensive technology courses. eg http://www.apdyfrig.com/2011/02/17/awydd-gwneud-cwrs-dwys-24-awr-mewn-technoleg-newydd/

Are we doing enough to be part of IPTV?

  • develop apps with new IPTV commercial funding
  • secure the place of Welsh television and interactivity within  IPTV, specifically with YouView

S4C is a purposeful intervention in the television market in order to be a tool in the survival of the Welsh language. The media has changed so much, you need a new kind of interference?

  • it must be understood that although figures may be much lower than television users at present, that intervention in the online media market is crucial now
  • Welsh production companies and individuals within those companies already doing much more than S4C to try to push online services, but are held back.

How can S4C create a closer, more honest connection between itself and its audience/users?

  • A natural gap has existed between the television audience and producers in the one to many model. It will not be easy to change this type of organizational relationship.
  • So it may be better to leave it and focus entirely on trying to jump over television to the creation of other services that may overlap with TV, and that can reduce that gap
  • In order to do this, you might have to create these services outside of S4C as an institution / channel altogether.
  • S4C is in a comfort zone in terms of broadcasting. Intervention must be created that will force them to come out of this.

Is S4C as a broadcaster a suitable structure for online media and new methods of co-creation?

  • S4C has had almost 30 years to grow. It has perhaps over-grown as an institution (not in terms of content, I hasten to add).
  • It has not grown to do more than one thing. It has grown up around one thing: mass television broadcasting.
  • I would argue that S4C (and not the S4C Authority) does not have the ability within the organization to adapt.
  • So I would argue that there exists a need to create a small body / company, under the Authority who can be a means to implement policies and aspirations that are non-televisual in nature .
  • This sister body needs to be a way of educating S4C and work across all of the channel’s activities and other bodies in the same way.
  • I do not think either that there is sufficient expertise within the channel. Nobody is responsible for strategy or online content in particular. There are people who operate those elements, but they have no power, no cross-departmental brief, with a basis in content.
  • Take a look what  ??the Basque broadcaster EITB did : re-assessing every post in the channel in order to incorporate online; appoint a head of dept.  for online

It must create partnerships – but what kind of partnerships and what will they cost?

  • S4C is and island. It has been an island for over a decade. We need to zoom out and see S4C as an archipelago of islands (as it was to start?).
  • in a digital age it does not make sense to have digital publishing funds issued by the Council books, funding for technology development by the Language Board and funding resources online education by the assembly government department. All apart, and none cooperating.
  • Is there a way to re-assess the gross funds available for digital material in Welsh and to co-manage it with a strategy between S4C and other Welsh commissioning / grant-giving / contracting institutions.
  • This is not easy – partnering on projects is sometimes  as difficult as pulling teeth to organizations that have rusted to the ground. It must find some sort of institutional WD40. I don’t know what (or maybe who) that is yet, but we need something to be a buffer when well-established institutions come head to head to cooperate.

So those were the points I made. Thanks to Eurosfor the impetus to put them together for an event. There was a good crowd, and I thought that the students there had  very interesting ideas.

I’m not absolutely certain about the validity of all of the above points, but I think they are worth discussing, and hope they can instigate discussion. It would be great to hear your comments, if you agree or disagree with anything.

 

Cyflwyniad ‘Cymanfa Ddychmygu S4C Newydd’, Theatr Felinfach

Ddydd Sadwrn cyn diwethaf bûm i yn Theatr Felinfach ar ol cael gwahoddiad i roi rhai syniadau am ddyfodol S4C yn y cyd-destun digidol. Doeddwn i ddim am fod mor hy a chynnig maniffesto cyflawn ond codi cwestiynau a allai fwydo mewn i drafodaeth bellach. Mae’r erthygl Euros yn Click on Wales yn nodi bod pwyslais gen i ar fod pobol ifanc yn defnyddio mwy ar rwydweithiau cymdeithasol na theledu, denture ond roedd fy neges yn wahanol i hynny o’n i’n teimlo. O’n i’n meddwl ei bod hi’n werth i fi gyhoeddi beth ddwedes i beth bynnag, rhag ofn bod gwerth ehangach iddo. Byddwn i’n falch iawn o glywed unrhyw sylwadau.

[Gol: anghofies i nodi bod Bryn Salisbury wedi ysgrifennu cofnod ei hun ar rai o’r un themâu felly dwi’n annog chi i fynd draw i’w ddarllen hefyd os am berspectif arall.]

Cymanfa S4C

Gosod ambell her, codi ambell gwestiwn

Dwi ddim am geisio cynnig atebion i’r busnes o gynhyrchu rhaglenni teledu. Mae digon o bobol eraill sydd â phrofiad hir o’r diwydiant all wneud hynny’n llawer gwell. Ond hoffwn i osod ambell her neu gwestiwn i’r gyfundrefn ddarlledu Gymraeg o berspectif y newidiadau aruthrol sydd wedi dod yn sgil dyfodiad y rhyngrwyd i bob agwedd o’n bywydau, a’n arbennig y ffordd mae wedi tarfu ar bob model busnes cyfryngau a ddatblygwyd hyd troad y ganrif ddwetha.

Mae’r cyfryngau ar-lein yn rhan annatod o ddarlun cyfryngau heddiw. Dydyn nhw ddim felly yn y Gymraeg. Eto. Sut allwn ni newid hynny?

  • mae datblygiadau Cymraeg yn y maes wedi cael eu llesteirio hyd yn hyn
  • mae yna inertia sefydliadol ar draws holl ddarparwyr cyfryngau Cymru
  • nid oes digon yn cael ei wneud i ystwytho trefniannau fel bod modd addasu i anghenion cyfryngau digidol a’r gynulleidfa sydd yn barod amdano

Ai rhagor o gwmniau teledu sydd eu hangen neu sector ddigidol gryfach?

  • mae’r sector cyfryngau digidol yn wan iawn yma
  • rol gan S4C i dyfu’r sector hwnnw
  • os ydyn ni am gael cyfryngau deinamig yn mae’n rhaid i ni ddatblygu cwmniau sy’n gallu addasu i gynhyrchu ar gyfer ar-lein

Ai S4C.com cynhwysfawr sydd ei angen neu S4C fel brand digidol ar draws y rhyngrwyd abuddsoddwr mewn eraill?

  • mae ceisio cael un porth i gynnwys Cymraeg yn ffolineb. Mae ceisio cystadlu am fod yn hafan gartref gyda grym y BBC yn amhosib.
  • Gwell ceisio lledaenu brand S4C ar draws y we ac ar draws lle mae cynulleidfaoedd yn ymgynnull. Gweithio lletraws yn hytrach na fertigol.
  • Gall ddechrau gwneud hyn drwy greu ffrwd fuddsoddi ar gyfer cynnwys a gwasanaethau ar-lein

All S4C gymryd rôl galluogi a buddsoddi yn hytrach na chomisiynu?

  • ai comisiynwyr yw’r bobol iawn i wneud penderfyniadau am werth rhywbeth yn oes y rhyngrwyd?
  • Efallai gall S4C ddechrau defnyddio modelau newydd, hyd braich o fuddsoddi mewn prosiectau yn ara bach
  • Nid oes angen ariannu cyfresi hir ar-lein er mwyn llenwi amserlen
  • Mae’n un peth i ddweud y byddant yn hyrwyddo UGC fondigrybwyll, neu cynnyrch di-dal, ar eu gwefan, ond does dim son am geisio buddsoddi yn unrhywbeth i greu’r ‘UGC’ hynny

Sut all S4C newid o fod yn sefydliad gweithredoedd mawr i fod yn sefydliad gweithredoedd bach hefyd?

  • Efallai dim ond £200 sydd ei angen ar brosiect bychan ar-lein i ddechrau. Oes modd datblygu model egino. Buddsoddi’n fach mewn llawer, a buddsoddi rhagor wrth weld llwyddiant.
  • Mae modelau fel hyn yn gwbl ddiarth i S4C ond trwy ddechreuadau bach mae llawer o lwyddiannau’r we yn tyfu.
  • Os oes llwyddiant ar y gweil, yna gall S4C roi hwb drwy ei hysbysebu, a defnyddio’r platfform ‘mawr’ ar gyfer cyflymu’r twf ar-lein

Oes ffyrdd o ryddhau cynnwys ar-lein?

  • Mae angen dechrau trafodaethau ar fyrder i sicrhau bod deunydd Cymraeg yn gallu cael rhyddid a thelerau ffafriol i gael ei ddosbarthu ar-lein
  • Mae angen ail-edrych ar delerau masnach ar gyfer cynnwys ar-lein Cymraeg
  • mae cytundebau TAC/Equity/MU ac ati yn rai a ddylunwyd ar gyfer diwedd yr oes analog. Mae’n hen bryd ail-asesu.
  • Meddwl am sut mae posib rhydhau rhai mathau o gynnyrch ar-lein fel y gall gael ei ail-ddefnyddio. Trwyddedau Creative Commons yn un ffordd.

Sut all S4C ddarparu gofod i arbrofi, methu, archwilio dulliau newydd o gynhyrchu?

  • does gan neb fap ar gyfer gwneud y mwyaf o gyfleoedd a heriau’r cyfryngau fel mae’n sefyll. Rhaid felly creu lle i deimlo’n ffordd a gweld beth sydd yn gweithio yn y Gymraeg

If we want to create new forms of civic value, we need to improve the ability of small groups to try radical things…our best chance for finding good ideas is to have as many groups as possible try as many things as possible.

Clay Shirky

Sut all S4C feddwl tu hwnt i deledu prif-ffrwd gan gadw gafael ar deledu prif-ffrwd?

  • nid displacement o un technoleg/cyfrwng gyda un arall, ond ychwaengu cyfryngau at gyfryngau fydd yn cydweithio mewn ffyrdd cymhleth newydd
  • mae teledu’n dal yn bwysig, ond rhaid gwneud digon o le i’r gweddill anadlu

Oes yna ddulliau cysefin o greu cyfryngau Cymraeg ar y rhyngrwyd?

  • rhaid i ni geisio dod o hyd i beth sydd yn gweithio i ni fel siaradwyr Cymraeg.
  • Mae posibliadau di-rifedi, ond bron dim wedi cael eu harchwilio. Yn rhy aml rydyn ni’n efelychu modelau Eingl-Americanaidd.

Sut all S4C helpu i fagu cynulleidfa ddigidol?

  • yn yr un modd ac yr oedd yn rhaid i S4C adeiladu cynulleidfa Gymraeg ar gyfer ei sianel newydd yn 1982 rhaid adeiladu cynulleidfa ar gyfer deunydd ar-lein yn y Gymraeg

Criticizing present realities is important but insufficient. It can be hard to picture what the future would look like, and so to be making things, as examples of future creative diversity, in the here and now, offers a powerful and tangible form of inspiration to others – and challenges the apparent inevitability of the present.

David Gauntlett

  • mae’r nifer o esiamplau o wasanaethau ar-lein Cymraeg yn brin. Heb esiamplau da, sut mae creu y dilyniant anghenrheidiol, y loop adborth positif?
  • Mae gan S4C, rôl fawr i’w chwarae mewn hyrwyddo eraill sydd yn gwneud gwaith sydd yn cyfateb a’u briff nhw o roi gwasanaeth cyfryngau cyhoeddus Cymraeg
  • Nid gwersi llythrennedd y cyfryngau dwi’n son amdanyn nhw yma ond ceisio datblygu pobol sydd â brwdfrydedd ac egni i drio rhywbeth a’u sbarduno nhw mlaen drwy annogaeth a falle pethau fel cyrsiau technoleg dwys. e.e. http://www.apdyfrig.com/2011/02/17/awydd-gwneud-cwrs-dwys-24-awr-mewn-technoleg-newydd/

Ydyn ni’n gwneud digon er mwyn bod yn rhan o Deledu IP?

  • datblygu apps teledu IP newydd gyda arian masnachol
  • sicrhau lle teledu a rhyngweithio Cymraeg o fewn IPTV a YouView yn benodol

Mae S4C yn ymyrraeth pwrpasol ym marchnad teledu er mwyn bod yn arf ym mharhad yr iaith Gymraeg. Mae’r cyfryngau wedi newid cymaint, oes angen math newydd o ymyrraeth?

  • rhaid deall, er efallai bydd ffigyrau defnyddwyr yn llawer is na theledu i ddechrau, bod ymyrriad ym marchnad cyfryngau ar-lein yn hollbwysig nawr
  • mae cwmniau cynhyrchu Cymraeg ac unigolion o fewn y cwmniau hynny eisoes yn gwneud llawer mwy nac S4C i geisio gwthio gwasanaethau ar-lein, ond yn cael eu dal nôl.

Sut all S4C wneud cyswllt newydd, agosach, a mwy gonest rhwng S4C a’i chynulleidfa?

  • Mae bwlch naturiol rhwng cynulleidfa deledu a’r cynhyrchwyr. Mae’n gyfrwng un i nifer. Nid hawdd bydd newid y math yna o berthynas sefydliadol.
  • Gwell felly gadael hynny, a chanolbwyntio ar geisio neidio dros deledu’n llwyr a chreu gwasanaethau eraill sydd efallai’n gor-gyffwrdd gyda theledu, all leihau’r gagendor
  • I wneud hyn, efallai bod rhaid creu’r gwasanaethau hyn y tu allan i S4C fel serfydliad/sianel yn gyfangwbl.
  • Mae S4C mewn comfort zone o ran darlledu. Rhaid creu ymyrraeth fydd yn eu gorfodi i ddod allan o hyn.

Ydi S4C fel darlledwr yn strwythr addas ar gyfer datblygu ar-lein a dulliau newydd o gyd-greu?

  • mae S4C wedi cael bron i 30 mlynedd i dyfu. Mae wedi gor-dyfu efallai.
  • Nid yw wedi tyfu i wneud mwy nag un peth. Mae wedi tyfu o amgylch un peth: darlledu teledu torfol.
  • Mi fuaswn i’n dadlau nad oes gan S4C (ac nid Awdurdod S4C dwi’n ddweud fan hyn) y gallu o fewn y sefydliad i addasu.
  • Felly byddwn i’n dadlau bod angen creu corff/cwmni bach, o dan yr Awdurdod sydd yn gallu bod yn fodd i weithredu gobeithion a pholisiau an-nheledu cyfrwng Cymraeg.
  • Mae angen i’r chwaer-gorff hwn fod yn fodd o addysgu S4C a gweithio ar draws holl weithgareddau’r sianel a chyrff eraill yn yr un modd.
  • Nid wyf yn credu chwaith bod digon o arbenigedd o fewn y sianel. Does neb yn gyfrifol am strategaeth na chynnwys ar-lein yn benodol. Mae pobol sy’n gweithredu’r elfennau hynny, ond does ganddynt ddim grym, na briff croes-adrannol, seiledig mewn cynnwys.
  • Gweler beth wnaeth y darlledwr Basgeg EITB: ail-asesu pob swydd yn y sianel gan ystryied ar-lein; penodi pennaeth ar gyfer ar-lein

Mae’n rhaid creu partneriaethau – ond pa fath o bartneriaethau a beth fydd eu cost?

  • Mae S4C yn ynys. Mae wedi bod yn ynys ers dros ddegawd. Mae angen i ni nawr zoomio allan a gweld S4C fel archipelago o ynysoedd (fel y bu i ddechrau?).
  • mewn oes ddigidol dyw hi ddim yn gwneud synnwyr i gael arian cyhoeddi digidol gan y Cyngor llyfrau, arian ar gyfer datblygu technoleg gan Fwrdd yr Iaith ac arian adnoddau addysg ar-lein gan adran llywodraeth y cynulliad. Oll ar wahan, a neb yn cydweithio.
  • Onid oes modd ail-asesu crynswth yr arian sydd ar gael ar gyfer deunydd digidol Cymraeg a’i gyd-reoli gyda rhyw ftah o strategaeth rhwng S4C a sefydliadau comisiynu/grantiau/contractio eraill Cymru.
  • Nid hawdd fydd hyn – mae partneru ar brosiectau mor annodd â thynnu dannedd i sefydliadau sydd wedi rhydu yn eu hunfan. Mae’n rhaid dod o hyd i rhyw fath o WD40 sefydliadol. Wn i ddim beth (nac efallai pwy) yw hyn eto, ond mae angen rhywbeth i fod yn buffer pan ddaw sefydliadau hen-sefydledig at ei gilydd.

Felly dyna’r pwyntiau oedd gen i. Diolch i Euros am yr ysgogiad i’w rhoi at ei gilydd ar gyfer ei ddigwyddiad. Roedd yna griw da, ac ro’n i’n meddwl bod y myfyrwyr yn arbennig â syniadau diddorol dros ben.

Dwi ddim yn gwbl bendant fy meddwl am bob peth dwi’n nodi uchod, ond dwi yn meddwl bod nhw’n werth eu trafod. Bydda’n gret clywed ganddoch chi os da chi’n cytuno neu anghytuno gydag unrhywbeth.