Cyhoeddi fy nhraethawd PhD: Cyfryngau Cyfranogol ac Ieithoedd Lleiafrifol

twittermedia

Fis Awst ges i fy nhystysgrif yn nodi bod fy nhraethawd doethuriaeth wedi cael ei dderbyn. Hen bryd felly i mi ei wneud yn gyhoeddus i weld os mae’r ymchwil, viagra 100mg y canlyniadau a’m casgliadau’n gallu cyfrannu at drafodaeth at ddefnydd y Gymraeg ac ieithoedd lleiafrifol Ewropeaidd eraill mewn cyd-destunau cyfranogol arlein.

Teitl y traethawd yw:

Cydgyfeiriant cyfryngol a’r economi ddigidol: Asesu dulliau cyfranogol a thorfol o gynhyrchu cyfryngau mewn ieithoedd lleiafrifol

Lawrlwythwch y cyfan isod!

Mi fuasai’n wych cael trafodaeth, sylwadau ac ati. Dwi am drio cyhoeddi darnau ohono ar y blog ei hyn ar ffurf mwy cryno er mwyn mynd ar ôl pwyntiau penodol. Mae’n fwriad hefyd i geisio cael rhyw ffurf ar grynodeb yn y Saesneg hefyd ond does gen i ddim dyddiad pendant i wneud hynny eto felly cawn weld.

Edrych mlaen i glywed ganddoch chi.

Beth yw’r cyswllt rhwng Björk, torfoli cyllid a dysgu ieithoedd?

Wrth ddarllen y cyfweliad hwn:

Q&A: Bjork on the evolving music industry, store Kickstarter and Spotify (Wired UK).

Mi welais y dyfyniad hwn:

Your Kickstarter project to bring Biophilia to Android was sadly unsuccessful — looking back, injection what would you do differently and would you use crowdfunding again in the future?

 

I think it was the only thing we could do at the time, but only because of it failing we were approached by a company that had the latest technology to change Biophilia to Android in a lot simpler and more effortless way. So I don’t look at it as a mistake. When you go on an adventure like this, sometimes you have to accept that solutions come from places you couldn’t imagine and in a different way and from a different direction than you were aiming for. You have to drop control in a way but still try, not give up and not be too concerned about looking clumsy at times.

Mae’r frawddeg olaf dwi di bwysleisio mewn llythrennau bras yn cyfleu profiad cyffredin i unrhyw un sydd wedi dechrau prosiect arlein sydd yn defnyddio teclynnau sydd heb eto gael eu safoni, neu gyrraedd prif ffrwd diwylliannol eto.

Mi darodd fi ei fod o hefyd yn brofiad sydd yn gyffredin i ddysgu iaith – mae’n rhaid gadael i’ch hunain edrych yn drwsgwl a gwneud camgymeriadau er mwyn gallu dysgu a phrosesu’r iaith. Ar yr llaw arall hefyd mae’r swildod sydd yn dod o fod yn drwsgwl hefyd yn atal pobol rhag dysgu iaith neu ymroi i brosiect digidol sydd efallai ddim am weithio.

Mae sgil effeithiau positif ac annisgwyl yn dod o ddysgu ieithoedd hefyd yn yr un ffordd a mae Bjork yn nodi uchod am ei phrosiect Biophilia. Mae’r drws i ddiwylliant arall a’r bobol mae rhywun yn cyfarfod yn aml yn annisgwyl ar ôl yr ymdrech sydd mor focused ar ddysgu rhwybeth, heb efallai ddysgu am bwrpas y dysgu ar hyd y ffordd!

Ddyla hyn ddim bod yn syrpres falle, gan bod dysgu yn broses o fethu-deall-addasu-gwella, ond bod dysgu cyfathrebu yn gyhoeddus ac gyda phobol eraill yn fwy exposing na llawer i ffordd arall o ddysgu. Dwi wastad wedi sylwi wrth ddysgu myfyrwyr am ddefnyddio teclynnau digidol er enghraifft bod y foment yna o gael ymateb uniongyrchol wrth ymwneud am y tro cynta yn debyg iawn i’r foment yna o gynhesrwydd a’r golau’n dod mlaen wrth lwyddo i gyfathrebu â rhywun mewn iaith newydd. Yn y maes cyfryngau cymdeithasol, torfoli arlein ac ieithoedd mae mentro’n gyhoeddus – a bod yn barod i edrych chydig yn drwsgwl, a methu – yn rhan hanfodol o’r broses. Ynddyn nhw gyd, rhaid i ti roi dy hun allan yna, gan wybod y bydd rhywbeth da yn dod hyd yn oed os nad yw’r prosiect yn llwyddo fel y rhagwelaist.

Dysgu Cymraeg…gyda Duolingo?

Efallai eich bod chi wedi dod ar draws yr app dysgu ieithoedd Duolingo. Mi wnes i dros yr haf a mynd ati i’w ddefnyddio i wella fy Ffrangeg a Sbaeneg. Mae’r app a’r wefan yn gweithio’n wych gyda strwythr gwersi a gwobrwyon sydd yn syml ac yn defnyddio nifer o wahanol dechnegau darllen, diagnosis siarad a chyfieithu i gadw diddordeb.

Ond wrth ei ddefnyddio ro’n i’n meddwl – sut ddiawl mae app a phrofiad cystal â hwn am ddim? Lle mae’n nhw’n defnyddio fi er mwyn ariannu hwn? Ac o Gwglo, abortion fe ges yr ateb:

Von Ahn, a computer science professor at Carnegie Mellon University, is the co-creator of Duolingo, a free language-­learning site that turns students into an online workforce. His software uses their answers to simple exercises in a translation service that he expects to charge money for.

Felly, y fargen yw yn gyfnewid am yr app slic, da chi’n gwneud gwaith cyfieithu i Mr Von Ahn. Mae BuzzFeed newydd gyhoeddi eu bod nhw’n defnyddio’r gwasanaeth i gyfieithu erthyglau ar leoleiddiadau newydd eu gwefan, a’n hapus efo’r canlyniadau (er yn ei ffordd ddihafal “plentyn siawns globaleiddio” yw be mae Morozov yn ei alw!).

Ond do’n i ddim wir yn hoffi bod app Von Ahn wedi nhynnu fi mewn heb i fi wir ddeall beth oedd y fargen. Erbyn y pwynt yna o’n i eisoes yn gaeth i gael fy credits digidol Duolingo am lwyddo i siarad am y mwnci oedd yn y goeden (a’r llygoden oedd o dan y bwrdd) felly fe barheais am chydig ond efo rhyw deimlad anghysurus o gael fy hyfforddi i fod yn gaethwas cyfieithu. Rhyw fath o gimp ieithyddol i’n nhynnu allan o focs Mr Von Ahn pan fo Cyngor Ceredigion isio cyfieithu eu Strategaeth Pryd ar Glyd 2014-2017.

Ond nid yw Duolingo’n dysgu Cymraeg, dim ond Sbaeneg, Almaeneg, Ffrangeg a Phortiwgeeg, felly fydd Cyngor Ceredigion fyth yn manteisio ar gynllun Mr Von Ahn…neu fyddan nhw?Mae Duolingo rwan wedi agor eu Deorfa Ieithyddol er mwyn gadael i bobol gynnig ieithoedd a gwersi i greu Duolingo ar gyfer Siapaneeg, Rwsieg, neu Gymraeg.

O weld pa mor addictive oedd dysgu gyda Duolingo a’r rhwyddineb o symud rhwng gwe a symudol ar ryngwyneb slic iawn, alla i ddychmygu y byddai’r dull yn apelio at lawer, ond oes unrhywun o ddifri am jest rhoi pecynnau gwersi a gwaith cyfieithu i Mr Von Ahn iddo fo gael gwneud ei filiynau? Amser a ddengys, debyg, ond os mae cymuned o siaradwyr Cymraeg yn ffurfio i wneud hyn fydd na ddim lot gall Gymdeithas Cyfieithwyr Cymru na Addysg i Oedolion wneud amdano.

Ond allwn ni droi’r syniad o dorfoli gwaith cyfieithu i’n mantais? Fyddai hi ddim yn wych, petasai pob person sy’n dysgu Cymraeg trwy efallai Cymraeg i Oedolion, ac sydd wedi cyrraedd safon lle gallant wneud cyfieithu syml, yn cyfrannu tuag at gyfieithu tudalennau Wikipedia i’r Gymraeg? Mwy o erthyglau Wikipedia Cymraeg = mwy o adnoddau dysgu = mwy o flaenoriaeth i’r Gymraeg gan gwmniau fel Google ac ati  = gwell sefyllfa i’r Gymraeg yn ehangach.

Pa mor anodd fyddai hynny te?

Why haven’t Welsh speakers taken to Foursquare?

I had a bit of a ding-dong with @berrydm earlier on Twitter about Foursquare and Welsh language usage on the platform. See below for a rundown of the tweets.


David Berry couldn’t see why Welsh speakers don’t just go out there and use platforms like 4sq in Welsh and make the space their own. I agree wholeheartedly with the need for Welsh to” align itself with these digital technologies” – Welsh should be used in as many domains as possible, approved including social media – but I disagree with the need, pills or perhaps the wisdom, of forcing to do so with 4sq in particular.
Here’s why:

The issue of early adopters (or the Welsh Digital Illuminati!)

  • David Berry suggests that foursquare can be made a space where the Welsh language is used if the ‘Welsh Digital Illuminati’ rally round and start leaving Welsh tips. I agree in principle that this is how you make Welsh language use on a platform normalised. A stubborn few hardcore users making a language visible on a platform, and getting the ball rolling, reducing the sense of talking in a vacuum. With Twitter and Facebook this development happened organically. People loved to use those platforms and saw that their friends were using them and so on. What I saw with Foursquare initially was that those usual Welsh speaking early adopters were there, but were either using English or not leaving tips at all, and just checking in (using English by default).
  • Berry suggests that Welsh speakers should rush to try to colonise a platform before English, but this is just impossible. The amount of people that speak English compared to Welsh (as well as those bilinguals who defer to English as their default online) will always mean that Welsh language use of a platform will come much later and much slower.
  • There are only so many Welsh speaking people adopting new digital technologies early and who have the desire and will to use Welsh on those platforms. The number of new digital platforms is increasing all the time. It  becomes a resource management and prioritisation issue. If the platform does not seem to be getting traction, then concentrate energies on something else, where time and effort can yield greater value for both the person creating content on that platform and end-user. People haven’t put all their eggs (or any eggs!) in the 4sq basket.

English and the invisible mass audience

  • When confronted with the opportunity to leave a tip on Foursquare, the user would usually have some idea in their mind of an audience. This could be their followers, as well as other unknown 4sq users who may check-in in the future. Most Welsh speakers, I would hazard, would leave a tip in English in order for their message to be understood by the widest possible audience.
  • But why leave a tip in English on 4sq when the same person would happily tweet in Welsh/bilingually when using another platform? I think it has to do with message frequency, permanence and a known audience. A tweet is one message amidst a busy flow giving the tweet less weight perhaps than a tip on Foursquare. The linguistic choice is therefore not dwelled upon too much. A Welsh speaking Twitter user also has a much wider range of followers that it knows do speak Welsh  (as well as possibly knowing that tweets are aggregated on platforms like Umap), meaning that they can imagine their audience in a much more concrete way than 4sq.

Reviews vs Game Layer

  • I started dabbling with Foursquare when it first launched. At the time, the tips elements of 4sq were not really how it was being pushed. It was the game layer that was the talking point which is non-linguistic in essence (although having automatic tweets of location etc in English only is a turn off).  Even though Crowley has tried to shake this off, that is still how I perceive it.

Has anybody really taken to Foursquare in Wales in a widespread way?

  • I gave up on Foursquare for several reasons: I found the game layer to be a little pointless; I found the social/serendipity element to be non-existent in my area (Ceredigion); I didn’t want to share my location in public; I found the take up of it didn’t reach a point where I thought ” I want to be part of this”; I found that tips on sites such as Qype and Yelp already provided me with deeper and better reviews for places I wished to go; and lastly: I didn’t want one other reason to get my phone out wherever I went!
  • I haven’t seen a large amount of people whom I know beyond those who adpoted 4sq early that have started using 4sq. With 10m users worldwide (but no stats on actual usage by these accounts), and although much lauded as a competitor to Twitter, it is still hasn’t really managed to break out to mainstream use.  I believe that most people are just too wary of publicly visible geolocation, or can’t see the point. The online review market is already fragmented, and in my opinion we don’t have enough Welsh speaking online reviewers who wish to use these platforms.
  • One prime example of where 4sq should work in Welsh but didn’t is the Eisteddfod. But alas 5 checkins an no reviews.

Usefulness and population density

  • How useful is 4sq in areas where there aren’t many regular users? I have looked at the tips in Aberystwyth today and still find them a bit on the weak side . In my opinion Qype and others have cornered the market on comments and reviews for places and Aberystwyth has a much wider variety and depth of tips. So the local and social serendipity aspects are weakened in areas where there is not a particularly high population density, as are many Welsh speaking areas.
  • Instead of using 4sq Welsh language Twitter users have started their own simple Twitter based platform that shares reviews through the hashtag #adolygiad: Adolygiad.com. This to me would suggest that there are people who wish to write reviews online, but don’t want to use platforms such as 4sq and Yelp which make it difficult, if not impossible, to find all Welsh language reviews in one place, or have a Welsh interface (Qype at one point did allow you to tag Welsh language reviews).
  • I don’t think it’s a coincidence either that 3G is so non-existent in Wales outside areas of high population density. Granted, 4sq is not heavy on data, but it may be the case that smartphone uptake is lower in these areas due to mobile data issues.
  • On usefulness, I agree that if there was a lot of Welsh language information on 4sq that it could be used for other platforms to build upon, but the kind of density of activity for you to be able to build something viable upon it would be very difficult. I think that only Twitter and Wicipedia would have enough content to make any apps that use their APIs viable. 4sq would take a long time to do that, and would ultimately still be patchy in its coverage.

Interface and Descriptions

  • Most places are named and described in English, which is understandable as that is the language of the interface. However, when you know that the place is commonly referred to in Welsh, or there is a Welsh name, it grates. It grates doubly if you can’t edit it. You have to be ‘first in’ or a superuser to  amend the name of a place. Not  a dealbreaker but certainly not much of an incentive to continue with it. The platform disincentivises use in any language other than English. Some platforms (such as Quora) remove Welsh language content as inappropriate language. As you can guess, I’ll never use Quora again, though’m not sure what 4sq’s policy is on this to be honest.
Would a distinctly Welsh language version of 4sq make the right environment for review exchange? Would there be enough uptake? Many have said that they would like to see a Welsh language review site, or something along those lines, but nobody has built it yet. I’m sure it would be great, but whilst other platforms exist it makes it a very tricky commercial proposition.
I haven’t seen any Welsh language tips on 4sq that I can remember, but I might try to leave a few to see what kind of reaction they get.
So, there are some thoughts. It would be good to hear yours. Thanks to @berrydm for prodding me to write.

Mercator Workshop June 2011 – my phd work in progress presentation

Ddoe mi fues i’n cymryd rhan mewn gweithdy a drefnwyd gan Sefydliad Mercator oedd yn edrych ar yr ymchwil gyfredol ym maes cyfryngau ieithoedd lleiafrifol. Mi roddias gyflwyniad byr ar fy ngwaith i geisio rhoi golwg fras ar lle ydw i yn y broses. Roeddwn yn cyflwyno yn Gymraeg ond gyda gwybodaeth gefnogol ar y sgrin yn Saesneg (roedd y mynychwyr di-Gymraeg yn cael cyfieithiad ar y pryd hefyd). Dyma’r cyflwyniad gyda rhai nodiadau ychwanegol:

* * * * * * * * * * * *

Yesterday I took part in a workshop organised by the Mercator Institute which looked at the current research in the field of minority language media. I gave a short and rough presentation on where I am currently with my phd, visit this 10 months in. I spoke in Welsh but with English supporting visual material, for the ease of those having simultaneous translation. Here’s the presentation with a few extra notes:

Wikipedia, iaith a lefelau cydweithio/cyfranogiad

Wrth edrych am y ffigyrau cyfredol am niferoedd defnyddwyr Wicipedia (neu Wikipedia Cymraeg), steroids meddyliais y byddai’n werth jest rhoi snapshot yn cymharu sawl iaith sy’n leiafrifol, rhanbarthol neu ddim yn iaith gwladwriaeth (gan gynnwys Esperanto am laff!). Dyma’r tabl ryff:

wikipedia

 

Maent wedi eu trefnu yn ôl y golofn ‘depth’. Mae Wikipedia wedi creu fformiwla ‘depth’ er mwyn ceisio deall gwerth cymharol gwahanol Wikipediau. Mae’n asesu gwerth Wikipediaiddd, sef dyfnder y cydweithio/cyfranogiad, yn hytrach nac unrhyw werth academaidd (rhagor ar Wikipedia article depth – Meta).

Dyma’r tabl eto wedi ei drefnu yn ôl nifer erthyglau:

 

wikipedsdfseger

 

Ro’n i’n chwilfrydig i weld lle roedd y Wikipedia Cymraeg yn sefyll o ran gwerth y cyfraniadau ochr yn ochr â ieithoedd lleiafrifol eraill. Fel rhyw fath o ffon fesur dyma ‘ddyfnder’ rhai Wikipedias eraill: Saesneg: 603; Ffrangeg: 143; Iseldireg: 31; Pwyleg: 13.

Un cwestiwn dwi’n meddwl amdano heddiw ydi beth ydi’r gwahaniaeth rhwng iaith ar y rhyngrwyd sydd â diglossia gyda Saesneg, a iaith sydd gyda diglossia gyda iaith arall; ac i ba raddau mae hyn yn effeithio ar lefel a natur y cydweithio/cyfranogiad. Fy rhagdybiad oedd bod Saesneg yn parhau yn iaith ddominyddol ar y rhyngrwyd, a bod siaradwyr Cymraeg a Gwyddeleg, dyweder, yn llai tebygol o ddefnyddio’r rhyngrwyd yn eu hiaith na siaradwyr Basgeg neu Galisieg. Wrth gwrs mae hyni gyd yn gor symleiddio’n llwyr, ond mae’n ddiddorol gweld beth yw’r lefel cyfranogiad.

Mae gan y Basgwyr dros ddwy waith yn fwy o ddefnyddwyr bwyiog na’r Gymraeg, ond eto, mae ‘dyfnder’ y cyfraniadau yn llai. Fodd bynnag gan bod y nifer o ddelweddau yn y Wikipedia Basgeg yn y tabl yn 1, sydd yn methu bod yn gywir, dwi’n amau bod eu ffigwr ‘dyfnder’ wedyn yn anghywir hefyd.

O bosib, gellid tynnu o hyn bod rhyw fantais yn dod i’r amlwg i ieithoedd sydd â diglossia gyda Saesneg yn achos Wikipedia. Am eu bod yn rhannu iaith gyda’r iaith fwyaf ar Wikipedia yn gyffredinol (a’r iaith weinyddol ar lefel uchaf Wikipedia), mae ychydig o’r bywiogrwydd hynny yn tollti drosodd i’r ieithoedd hynny. Bosib bod y gymuned Wikipedia ym Mhrydain, Iwerddon a’r UDA yn gryfach o ganlyniad i’r ffaith bod y Saesneg dal yn dominyddu’r wefan. Wn i ddim os yw hyn yn cyfri fel effaith bositif i diglossia gyda Saesneg am unwaith! Mae’n dibynnu os taw ‘gwerth’ neu ‘nifer’ yw eich meini prawf chi wrth gwrs. O bosib bod mwy o angen (efallai oherwydd diffyg adnoddau eraill) am nifer mwy o erthyglau mewn un iaith na’r llall hefyd.

Efallai hefyd bod y tebygolrwydd o gael erthygl gyfatebol, well a mwy trwyadl, yn Saesneg yn golygu bod llai o gynhyrchu erthgylau stwbyn, a rhoi mwy o gig ar erthyglau. Mi allai wrth gwrs, fod o ganlyniad i dîm golygyddol mwy bywiog hefyd (mae Wikipedia Cymraeg yn ail o ran niferoedd Admins, i’r Gatalaneg), ond mae’r enghraifft Wyddelig yn awgrymu nad yw hyn yn wir.

Dyna rai sylwadau sydyn, off the cuff. Faswn i’n hapus i glywed unrhyw sylwadau pellach, yn arbennig o ran y math o lefel cyfranogiad mae rhywun am ei gael mewn gwahanol ieithoedd neu sefyllfaoedd diglossaidd.

Influence Networks: mapio’r berthynas rhwng sefydliadau a phobol

Influence Networks: The six degrees of investigative journalism » OWNI.eu, disinfection News, sickness Augmented.

Dwi’n gynyddol impresd efo be mae’r rhwydwaith newyddiadurol  Ffrengig Owni yn ei wneud. Eu prosiect diweddaraf yw lansiad app ar gyfer newyddiadurwyr, NGOs ac ymgyrchwyr i helpu i wneud dadansoddiad o rwydweithiau.

Mae Influence Networks yn galluogi defnyddwyr i ychwanegu pobol a sefydliadau at y gronfa ddata, gan nodi eu perthynas a’u gilydd, yn ogystal â nodi beth yw lefel gwirionedd y berthynas yna (h.y. ai dim ond sibrydion o berthynas neu ydi’r berthynas yn hysbys ac wedi ei gadarnhau).

Mi alla i wedl defnydd o hwn ar gyfer mapio gweithgareddau’r Cynulliad a gwneud y gwaith o geisio deall pwy sy’n gwneud beth yn ychydig mwy eglur.

Dyma eglurhad o sut gallai gael ei ddefnyddio ar gyfer torfoli ymchwiliad:

Influence Networks’ aim is to allow any journalist or citizen to call for a collaborative investigation on a given topic. Let’s say you want to check on all contractors in the US military. You could do that by hand (very time consuming) or ask for contributions that you then check by hand (again, a very long process).

With Influence Networks, all data is collaboratively validated and managed on a machine-readable format. That means that data can be linked with other relevant repositories and speak for itself. A search between “US government” and “military contractors” could reveal who might have a conflict of interest when going to war, for instance. Remember in late 2001, when KBR, a Halliburton subsidiary, was granted a 10-year contract wherever US troops went? A network analysis tool at the time might have made the ties between KBR and vice-president Cheney clearer.

Enghraifft ddiddorol o dorfoli dwi’n meddwl a mae wastad yn braf gweld arloesedd o’r fath yn deillio o’r tu allan i’r UDA.